MYOPIA A narrowing of the eyeball on the horizintal axis or shortsight near objects seen clearly, but not distant ones
HYPERMETROPIA A widening of the eyeball on the horizontal axis or longsight distant objects seen clearly, but not near ones
ASTIGMATISM A change in curvature of eyeball.all objects appear distorted
CATARACT Clouding of the lens - the remedy is removal by surgery
Partial or total blindess results from damage to or degeneration of the retina which collects and converts visual images into nerve impulses; or damage to or degeneration of the optic nerve which transmits these impulses to the brain; or damage to or degeneration of sight-related centres in the brain where the incoming impulses are interpreted and understood.
HOPES FOR THE FUTURE : Two avenues of currently ongoing research and development projects are noteworthy :
Surgical : Retinal Implants Here a tiny electronic device positioned outside convert visual images into a stram of electonic impulses like a TV transmitter, which are transmitted to an array of sensors sitting on a part of the retina and augment the function of the retina to transmit corresponding nerve impulses to the brain.
Medical : A new development in Gene therapy,
where a selected gene is injected into the eye and it slows down or remedies
the degenerative changes affecting the retina. This approach is still in
the stage of animal-based trials.